A LOOK AT NUMBERS, SYMPTOMS, AND TYPES OF ADHD

pie chart

According to the Center for Disease Control

and Protection (CDC) the prevalence of ADHD

is reported as follows:

Time frame Percentage of US children ages 5-17 diagnosed with ADHS
1998-2000 7%
2007-2009 9%
2011 11% (about 6.4 million children)
2012-2014 10.2%

ADHD is the most common mental health disorder of childhood and is characterized by inattention, impulsive behavior, which may include aggression, and hyperactivity. Symptoms often persist into adulthood.  Symptoms are present in academic, familial, and social settings.

According to the article, ADD by the numbers – a summary of the research of Russell Barkley,Ph.D., “On average, there are 1 to 3 children who have ADHD in every classroom of 30 students.  Three to six more boys are diagnosed than girls.”  Further, Barkley reports, “The rate of emotional development for children with ADHD is 30% slower than their non-ADD peers. For example, a 10-year-old with ADHD operates at the maturity level of about a 7-year-old; a 16-year-old beginning driver is using the decision -making skills of an 11-year-old.  65% of children with ADHD have problems with defiance, non-compliance and other problems with authority figures, including verbal hostility and temper tantrums.  25% of students with ADHD have other serious learning problems in one or more of these areas: oral expression, listening skills, reading comprehension, and math.  Half of all ADHD students have listening comprehension problems.”

Consider the child’s life outside of academia.  Maybe the family has just experienced loss of a loved one, divorce, family violence, problems in family interaction.  Possibly the child experiences bullying on a regular basis or because of his behavior problems or inattention, he receives negative input from all in his circle of influence.  A child with ADHD can exhibit escalation of behavior and include aggression to these behaviors if other circumstances as factored in with his symptoms.

Barkley also reports about one-third of these students have one or more of the following:

  • Language deficits (poor listening comprehension, poor verbal expression, poor reading comprehension)
  • Poor organizational skills
  • Poor memory
  • Poor fine motor skills
  • Students with ADHD are two to three times more likely to have problems with expressive language than their non-ADD peers.
  • 75% of boys with ADD are hyperactive; 60% of girls with ADD are hyperactive.
  • 40% of children who have ADHD have at least one parent who has ADHD
  • 50% of children who have ADHD also have sleep problems.
  • Parents of a child who has ADHD are three times as likely to separate or divorce as parents of non-ADD children
  • Teenagers with ADHD have almost four times as many traffic citations as their non-ADD peers.
  • Teens with ADHD have four times as many car wrecks and are seven times more likely to have a second accident.
  • 21% of teens with ADHD skip school repeatedly.
  • 35% eventually drop out of school.
  • 45% have been suspended.
  • 30% have failed or had to repeat a year of school

According to Kronenberger, there are 2 types of ADHD:  Inattentive and Hyperactive.

REFERENCES:

Center for disease Control and Protection.  https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db70.htm

ADDitude Magazine online.  http://www.additudemag.com/adhd-web/article/623.html

Kronenberger, W. G., & Meyer, R. G. (2001). The child clinician’s handbook. Boston

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